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 Introduction to Desktop Computer

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SeongTheOnly
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PostSubject: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:07 pm



A desktop computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for regular use at a single location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. Prior to the wide spread of microprocessors, a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. Desktop computers come in a variety of types ranging from large vertical tower cases to small form factor models that can be tucked behind an LCD monitor. "Desktop" can also indicate a horizontally-oriented computer case usually intended to have the display screen placed on top to save space on the desk top. Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and keyboards. Tower cases are desktop cases in the former sense, though not in the latter. Cases intended for home theater PC systems are usually considered to be desktop cases in both senses, regardless of orientation and placement.

桌面电脑是一台个人电脑(PC)中经常使用的在一个单一地点的形式,而不是移动笔记本电脑或手提电脑。由于以前的微处理器被广泛的传播,计算机,可以适合于桌面上被认为非常小。台式电脑有各种大型以及小型的设计,还有和LCD显示器连成一体的等多种类型。 “桌面”也表明水平为导向的电脑机箱通常是为了有、可以让显示屏幕放置在上面而节省桌面空间。大多数现代的台式电脑有单独的屏幕和键盘。



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Last edited by SeongTheOnly on Fri Sep 11, 2009 7:13 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:15 pm

ALL IN ONE PC



All-in-One computers are desktop computers that combine the monitor into the same case as the CPU. Apple has manufactured several popular examples of all-in-one computers, such as the original Macintosh of the mid-1980s and the iMac of the late 1990s and 2000s. Some older 8-bit computers, such as the Commodore PET 2001 or Kaypro II, also fit into this category. All-in-One PCs are typically more portable than other desktop PCs and many have been built with carrying handles integrated into the case. They can simply be unplugged and transported to a new location.

Like laptops, All-in-One desktop computers are characterized by a comparative lack of upgradeability or hardware customization, as internal hardware is often placed in the back of the visual display unit. Furthermore, in the case of the iMac line since 2002, the CPU and other internal hardware units are, more or less, permanently glued to the motherboard due to space constraints.

However, latest models of the All In One Computer have changed their approach this issue. Many of the current offerings, like the Handii myFace and others, are using standard off-the-shelf components and are designing upgrade convenience into their products.

全合一电脑台式机组合成的CPU作为同一案件的监督。苹果公司生产的几种流行的所有实例一体电脑,如80年代中期,原Macintosh和90年代末和2000年代的iMac。全合一电脑通常比其他台式电脑更轻便,他们可以简单地拔掉并运送到新的位置。

如笔记本电脑,全合一台式电脑的特点是比较缺乏内部硬件升级的弹性,主机箱往往是放置在视觉显示器的后面。此外,在2002年以来的iMac产品线的情况下,CPU和其他内部硬件的单位,或多或少,由于空间限制而被永久粘在主板。

然而,所有的最新型号在一台计算机改变了他们处理这一问题。许多现有的产品,如Handii myFace等,使用标准的现成元件,并设计到方便自己的产品升级。

Source : Wikipedia
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PostSubject: Re: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:25 pm

Motherboard/ Mainboard
主机板



A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in some complex electronic systems, such as modern personal computers. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board.[1] It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.

Motherboards are produced in a variety of sizes and shapes ("form factors"), some of which are specific to individual computer manufacturers. However, the motherboards used in IBM-compatible commodity computers have been standardized to fit various case sizes. As of 2007, most desktop computer motherboards use one of these standard form factors—even those found in Macintosh and Sun computers which have not traditionally been built from commodity components.

Laptop computers generally use highly integrated, miniaturized, and customized motherboards. This is one of the reasons that laptop computers are difficult to upgrade and expensive to repair. Often the failure of one laptop component requires the replacement of the entire motherboard, which is usually more expensive than a desktop motherboard due to the large number of integrated components.

Motherboards contain some non-volatile memory to initialize the system and load an operating system from some external peripheral device. Microcomputers such as the Apple II and IBM PC used ROM chips, mounted in sockets on the motherboard. At power-up, the central processor would load its program counter with the address of the boot ROM, and start executing ROM instructions, displaying system information on the screen and running memory checks, which would in turn start loading memory from an external or peripheral device (disk drive). If none is available, then the computer can perform tasks from other memory stores or display an error message, depending on the model and design of the computer and version of the BIOS.

Most modern motherboard designs use a BIOS, stored in an EEPROM chip soldered to the motherboard, to bootstrap the motherboard. (Socketed BIOS chips are widely used, also.) By booting the motherboard, the memory, circuitry, and peripherals are tested and configured. This process is known as a computer Power-On Self Test (POST) and may include testing some of the following devices:

floppy drive
network controller
CD-ROM drive
DVD-ROM drive
SCSI hard drive
IDE, EIDE, or SATA hard drive
External USB memory storage device

Any of the above devices can be stored with machine code instructions to load an operating system or a program.


主机板是在电子系统里使用的中央印刷着一些复杂电路的板,如现代个人电脑上。该主板或者有时被称为主板,系统板,或在苹果电脑的逻辑电路板。

主板生产的尺寸和形状(“外形”)品种,其中一些是针对个别电脑制造商。但是,在IBM所使用的主板兼容的商品电脑已标准化,以适应不同情况的大小。截至2007年[更新],大多数台式计算机主板使用其中一个标准的形式因素,甚至包括那些在Macintosh和Sun计算机进行传统上不被发现,商品的组件构成。

笔记本电脑一般采用高度集成,微型化和个性化主板。这是笔记本电脑难以升级和维修费用高昂原因之一。通常,一台笔记本电脑部件发生故障,需要整个主板,这通常是超过台式机主板由于集成组件大量昂贵的替代品。

主板包含一些非挥发性记忆体初始化系统和负载的一些外部外围设备的操作系统。如苹果II和IBM PC微型计算机使用的ROM芯片,插座安装在主板上。上电时,中央处理器将加载的启动ROM地址的程序计数器,并开始执行ROM的指示,在屏幕上显示系统信息和运行内存检查,这又将开始加载从外部存储器或外设设备(磁盘驱动器)。如果没有可用的,然后计算机可以执行其他任务或存储内存显示错误消息,根据模型和计算机和BIOS版本设计。

大多数现代设计的主板使用的BIOS,在EEPROM存储芯片焊接到主板上,以引导主板。 (嵌BIOS芯片被广泛应用,也。通过启动主板上),内存,电路和外围设备进行测试和配置。这个过程被称为电脑上电自检(POST),可能包括测试下列设备的一些:

软盘驱动器
网络控制器
CD - ROM光驱
DVD - ROM光驱
SCSI硬盘驱动器
的IDE,EIDE或SATA硬盘
外部USB存储器存储设备

上述设备可以存储任何与机器代码指令加载操作系统或程序。

Source : Wikipedia


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PostSubject: Re: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:31 pm

RAM - Random-Access Memory



Random-access memory (usually known by its acronym, RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order (i.e., at random). The word random thus refers to the fact that any piece of data can be returned in a constant time, regardless of its physical location and whether or not it is related to the previous piece of data.[1]

By contrast, storage devices such as tapes, magnetic discs and optical discs rely on the physical movement of the recording medium or a reading head. In these devices, the movement takes longer than data transfer, and the retrieval time varies based on the physical location of the next item.

The word RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where the information is lost after the power is switched off. Many other types of memory are RAM, too, including most types of ROM and flash memory called NOR-Flash.


List of Computer memory types

Volatile
DRAM, e.g. DDR SDRAM
SRAM
Upcoming
Z-RAM
TTRAM
Historical
Delay line memory
Selectron tube
Williams tube

Non-volatile
ROM
PROM
EPROM
EEPROM
Flash memory
Upcoming
FeRAM
MRAM
CBRAM
PRAM
SONOS
RRAM
Racetrack memory
NRAM
Millipede
Historical
Drum memory
Magnetic core memory
Plated wire memory
Bubble memory
Twistor memory


随机存取存储器(RAM)是一种计算机数据存储形式。今天,它采用集成电路的形式存储的数据,允许以任何顺序访问(即随机)。因此,随机一词是指任何类型的数据片可以在固定的时间产生的事实,而不管其物理位置和是否是与以前的数据片[1]。

相比之下,存储设备,如磁带,光盘和磁光盘依靠的记录介质或阅读头的物理运动。在这些设备,运动的时间超过数据传输,检索和时间变化的基础上的下一个项目的物理位置。

这个词的RAM通常与内存(如DRAM内存模块),其中的信息将丢失后挥发类型断电。记忆许多其他类型的内存,也包括ROM和闪存大多数类型称为NOR闪存。


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Source : Wikipedia


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PostSubject: Re: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:40 pm

Harddisk
硬盘




A hard disk drive (often shortened as hard disk, hard drive, or HDD) is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. Strictly speaking, "drive" refers to a device distinct from its medium, such as a tape drive and its tape, or a floppy disk drive and its floppy disk. Early HDDs had removable media; however, an HDD today is typically a sealed unit (except for a filtered vent hole to equalize air pressure) with fixed media.


硬盘驱动器(通常简称硬盘,硬盘驱动器,或硬盘驱动器)是一种非挥发性存储设备,数字编码存储在高速旋转的盘片表面的磁场数据。严格地说,“驱动器”是指从设备中,如不同的磁带驱动器和磁带或软盘驱动器和软盘。早期的硬盘驱动器已可移动媒体,然而,今天的硬盘驱动器通常是一个密封的单位(除经过筛选的排气孔,以平衡气压)固定媒体。


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PostSubject: Re: Introduction to Desktop Computer   Fri Sep 11, 2009 6:46 pm

Graphic Card
显示卡




A video card, video adapter, graphics-accelerator card, display adapter, or graphics card is an expansion card whose function is to generate and output images to a display. Many video cards offer added functions, such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes, video capture, TV-tuner adapter, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 decoding, FireWire, light pen, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors, while other modern high performance cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes such as PC games.

Video hardware can be integrated on the mainboard, as it often happened with early computers; in this configuration it was sometimes referred to as a video controller or graphics controller.

Outputs

9-pin VIVO for S-Video (TV-out), DVI for HDTV, and DE-15 for VGA outputs.

The most common connection systems between the video card and the computer display are:

Video Graphics Array (VGA) (DE-15)
  • Video Graphics Array (VGA) (DE-15).Analog-based standard adopted in the late 1980s designed for CRT displays, also called VGA connector. Some problems of this standard are electrical noise, image distortion and sampling error evaluating pixels.


Digital Visual Interface (DVI)
  • Digital Visual Interface (DVI).Digital-based standard designed for displays such as flat-panel displays (LCDs, plasma screens, wide high-definition television displays) and video projectors. It avoids image distortion and electrical noise, corresponding each pixel from the computer to a display pixel, using its native resolution.


Video In Video Out (VIVO) for S-Video, Composite video and Component video
  • Included to allow the connection with televisions, DVD players, video recorders and video game consoles. They often come in two 9-pin Mini-DIN connector variations, and the VIVO splitter cable generally comes with either 4 connectors (S-Video in and out + composite video in and out), or 6 connectors (S-Video in and out + component PB out + component PR out + component Y out [also composite out] + composite in).


High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
  • An advanced digital audio/video interconnect released in 2003 and is commonly used to connect game consoles and DVD players to a display. HDMI supports copy protection through HDCP.


DisplayPort
  • An advanced license- and royalty-free digital audio/video interconnect released in 2007. DisplayPort intends to replace VGA and DVI for connecting a display to a computer.


Other types of connection systems
  • Composite video Analog system with lower resolution; it uses the RCA connector.

  • Component video It has three cables, each with RCA connector (YCBCR); it is used in projectors, DVD players and some televisions.




视频卡,视频适配器,图形加速卡,显示适配器,或图形卡扩展卡,其功能是生成和输出图像的显示。许多视频卡提供了补充,如3D场景,加速渲染功能,视频采集,电视调谐器适配器,MPEG - 2和MPEG - 4解码,火线,光笔,电视输出,或者能够连接多台监视器,而其他现代高性能的卡被用来更加生动的要求,例如PC游戏的目的。

视频硬件可以集成在主板上的,因为它常常与早期的计算机发生,在这方面,人们有时也被称为视频控制器和图形控制器的配置。


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